Monday, April 28, 2014

A methodical approach to estimation and analysis

Our company is considering using some of SQL Server 2008 R2's features to reduce loading times from the product database to the data warehouse. Specifically, we are looking at Change Tracking (CT) or Change Data Capture (CDC). In a perfect world it would be easy to say CDC is the option. However, we face some hurdles.
  • We have Enterprise Edition in production but our "pre-prod" environment is Standard Edition. Implementing something like CDC is an increase in cost in licensing to upgrade the pre-prods (that's a whole 'nother story)
  • We have limited storage
  • The storage budget has already been allocated for this year
My task: Estimate the amount of additional storage required for CDC.

There aren't many, at least that I've found, websites, blogs or statistics on how much additional storage CDC requires so I needed to perform that analysis and estimates myself.

Since CDC creates a change tracking table for each table I realized I could get the approximate size of a row for each of those tables. Then, all I would need to know were the approximate number of rows changed each day.

Step 1) I enabled CDC for the source tables required for the data warehouse
if (select is_cdc_enabled from sys.databases where name = 'mySaaSDB') = 0

EXEC sys.sp_cdc_enable_db
PRINT 'CDC Already enabled'
EXEC sys.sp_cdc_enable_table

@source_schema = N'dbo'
, @source_name = N'tblTask'
, @role_name = NULL -- N'MyRole'
, @Capture_Instance = 'tblTask_CDC' -- May be omitted
, @filegroup_name = N'Primary'
, @supports_net_changes = 0 -- 0 for all changes, 1 for all changes and net changes

-- , @Captured_Column_List = '' -- NULL or omit for all columns. Not the best practice
, @Captured_Column_List =  'EmployerId,
TaskId, TaskTypeId, TaskStatusId, CriticalScore, TaskPriorityId, StartDate, DueDate, StartedDate, CompletedDate,
CancelledDate, EnteredDate, EnteredBy, ChangedDate, ChangedBy, LeaveId, EmployeeId'
Then, I used the system view to get the columns, data type and size of the base table and the CT table.
select,,, C.max_length
sys.tables T
JOIN sys.columns C
on C.object_id = T.object_id
sys.types ty
on ty.system_type_id = c.system_type_id = 'tblTask'

select,,, C.max_length
sys.tables T
JOIN sys.columns C
on C.object_id = T.object_id
sys.types ty
on ty.system_type_id = c.system_type_id = 'tblTask_CDC_CT'

Since most of the columns collected for CDC are precise data types it's easy to get an estimate for how big each row in the CT table will be and compare that to the base table.

Now, all I need to do is get the number of rows changed each day. For our application, most changes are due from INSERT operations. Typically, just new rows are added (although for some tables, when a new row is added for a task the original row is updated by nulling out an ineffectedDate column).

I had tried using ChangedDate and EnteredDate columns to get an average number of changes per day but I just wasn't getting any warm fuzzy's from that.

While doing my analysis, I had used the sp_spaceused procedure to get number of rows and data size for each table and column and calculating the average size of each row.

Then it dawned on me: sp_spaceused tells me exactly how many rows are in the table.

If I run that each day I can then compare the each day's row count and get a delta.
Rows Changed * CDC CT row table size = size of table

Summing that for all tables I can get an accurate bottom estimate for how much additional storage will be required to enable Change Data Capture. I say bottom estimate because I still don't know how many rows actually changed but it's a start.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

The importance of publishing

I presented at the Boulder SQL Server User group recently on "Taking your Skills to the Next Level". In my slides I talk about the importance of reading and staying up-to-date and not stagnating. Particularly with today's IT workforce, it's easy to be overwhelmed with day-to-day operations, fire-storms and "sev-1" outages and get sucked into a "just get it done and we'll refactor it to be more efficient later" mindset. While that may be productive short term, there are longer term stakes involved.

Many times that attitude results in a large amount of technical debt that rarely gets "fixed later" except when something breaks. Additionally, it inhibits growth.

So it is important to know what options are available in order to find an appropriate solution. And part of knowing what those options are involve reading. But, reading is not enough. It's great to know that "there's a new feature we can leverage" but has anyone ever implemented it? Has it ever been tested or validated that, yes, it will work in the company's environment?

Which brings up the second part of the presentation which is writing: create a proof of concept  (POC), write an in-house training for a lunch and learn series, and blog.

The problem with blogging is that, particularly in the SQL Server world, there are many brilliant MVPs who have already beaten us to the punch. Does that mean that us lesser SQL professionals don't have anything to say or dispense? We do. So instead of filling up the Interwebs and Blogosphere with our voice, I recommend starting or using an internal company blog site.

With an internal blog we, the soldiers on the front line, can espouse our views and knowledge to those closest to us while at the same time expanding our own knowledge.

So write my fellow database administrators, developers and architects. Find your voice and refine your audience and, ultimately, expand your own knowledge and grow.

Friday, January 31, 2014

Self documentation and extended properties - Building a Data Dictionary

In many of the environments I've worked, the amount of documentation around databases, schemas and objects has been, how shall I say it, somewhat limited. Most of the "self documentation" that I've seen has been within stored procedures and functions explaining purpose and reason for the code.
An example (from the AdventureWorks database)  follows.

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[uspGetManagerEmployees]

@BusinessEntityID [int]


-- Use recursive query to list out all Employees required for a particular Manager

WITH [EMP_cte]([BusinessEntityID], [OrganizationNode], [FirstName], [LastName], [RecursionLevel]) -- CTE name and columns

AS (

SELECT e.[BusinessEntityID], e.[OrganizationNode], p.[FirstName], p.[LastName], 0 -- Get the initial list of Employees for Manager n

FROM [HumanResources].[Employee] e

INNER JOIN [Person].[Person] p

   ... (code omitted for brevity)


SELECT e.[BusinessEntityID], e.[OrganizationNode], p.[FirstName], p.[LastName], [RecursionLevel] + 1 -- Join recursive member to anchor

... (code omitted for brevity)


-- Join back to Employee to return the manager name

... (code omitted for brevity)

What about documentation for other schema objects? Are there data dictionaries? Many places I've worked, or consulted, may have some external documentation including ER diagrams and data modeling but that's it. I've found very little internal documentation on database objects. Ask a question like "what are all the transactional tables" and you'll get an answer like "Go ask Bill. He designed that". There's a lot of information and documentation that's in someone's brain.

A recent issue at work brought this to light. We were migrating a hub and spoke model database to a multi-tenant model database. It's not as simple as a "backup-copy-restore" process as we needed to preserve the data in both databases. Add to the complexity is that both databases use identity columns for the primary keys. That means when migrating to the multi-tenant db those id columns will change. The due-diligence was performed, data migrated and boom. It all blew up. Emails sent to the migrated client used the wrong client template.

Eyebrows were raised, questions asked, "How did this happen?". "How can we prevent this from happening again?"

Well, there is a way. But it requires SOME knowledge of the schema. It's possible to query the metadata from the DMVS to get tables that have foreign keys, the tables that reference those foreign key tables, the columns referenced and the primary keys. Then, create a checksum on the non-data fields (dates tend to change frequently and will change the checksum) and compare the rows for deltas. But wait...
Problem #1 - Because the identity values changed, every row came back as a delta. That's thousands of rows to check manually.
Problem number #2 - What were we actually trying to compare? That is the real issue.

For example... The Person table has a foreign key to the Address table as each employee has an address. And the Address table has a foreign key to the State and Country tables.
In these cases, the Address table is more of a transactional table while the State and Country tables are lookup tables.
In our "Oops" example, it was the Letters and LettersTemplate tables. The task then is to "find lookup tables, compare the values for the client (or employer) and make sure that the value in the multi-tenant database is the same value as the original database.

So we have way to find child tables referenced by parent tables. But what are the values we need to compare? In some tables the column containing the lookup value is called SystemCode. In others, it's Type, or Description, or Status. There is nothing consistent and there was no documentation other than "check with ".

Enter the world of Extended Properties! This is my "go-to" tool for self documenting a database.
Properties can be added at
  • The database or Schema level (@level0Type)
  • Object level  such table, view or procedure (@level1Type)
  • Column level (@Level2Type)
Properties at each level have a name and value as well

I sat down and went through each of the tables referenced by foreign key and made a list based on my "knowledge" of the application, table name, column names. Then I sat down with the application architect and filtered out tables that were transactional in nature (like Address).

In our case, we used _Property to differentiate them from default supplied Microsoft properties (MS_Description).
Then for the @Value it depended on what we're looking for
  • LookupTable for lookup tables
  • LookupKey to identify the column(s) used as the foreign/lookup key for that table
  • LookupValue to identify the column(s) that contain the actual lookup values
This is what I wound up with:
EXEC sp_addextendedproperty
@name = N', @value = 'LookupTable',
@level0type = N'Schema', @level0name = dbo, -- dbo, Sales, HumanResources, etc
@level1type = N'Table', @level1name = tblBenefitType -- Name of table that is a lookup table

EXEC sp_addextendedproperty
@name = N'CoName_Property', @value = 'LookupKey',
@level0type = N'Schema', @level0name = dbo, -- dbo, Sales, HumanResources, etc
@level1type = N'Table', @level1name = tblBenefitType, -- Name of table that is a lookup table
@level2type = N'Column', @level2name = BenefitTypeId; -- Name of column that contains the key value

EXEC sp_addextendedproperty -- Will need to be executed for each column that comprises a lookup value
@name = N'CoName_Property', @value = 'LookupValue',
@level0type = N'Schema', @level0name = dbo, -- dbo, Sales, HumanResources, etc
@level1type = N'Table', @level1name = tblBenefitType, -- Name of table that is a lookup table
@level2type = N'Column', @level2name = BenefitType; -- Name of column that contains the value pair


Now it's just s simple matter of querying the sys.extended_properties system view to find lookup tables, their keys and values, and using those values in a dynamic query that generates a checksum to compare against databases.

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Repost: Why I work here!

My boss posted this today on his blog about "Why aren't you here yet". It's about our company, The Reed Group, and why you should work here.

I figured out his first 4 points long ago. It's the other 4 that helped bring me to Reed Group and to realize that yes, this IS the place to be!

One thing he forgot to mention: We innovate.

Reed Group is not just a software company. We're a technology company. What does that mean?

  • Don't just bang out code - I've been a web or application developer, a DBA and now a databases architect and I've written thousands of lines of ASP, .Net, java and T-SQL code. In all those years as I've written that code, I asked myself "Is this the best way to do this?". It may solve the problem but does it scale? That's the talent we hire. Forward thinkers. Those that know not just how to solve a problem, but know their tools intently, know what else is out there and look at different ways and methods to solve it.
  • Technology Integration - Yes, I'm a SQL Server database architect. I know it inside out. I know it from the storage subsystem all the way through memory and the engine. I know what's in the current release, the previous release and what's coming in the next releases. I can make informed decisions and recommendations so that it not only meets Reed Group's current needs but carries us forward into the next 3 to 5 years. Does that mean it's always the best tool? Maybe. Maybe not. I'm not so tied to the platform that I can't find a better way to make us successful in the future. And, as architect, I ensure that all aspects of our products work seamlessly. That goes from our core application, to the data warehouse, phone/IVR system, etc. It's not just about making the best Leave Management software, it's also about making the best tools available to help companies manage their leaves. That means that Reed Group isn't just banging out the same Software as a Service (Saas) or web product as well but how can it work with tablets and mobile devices to integrating leave management with normative data to provide accurate predictive models for those leaves.